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Different types of Switch Mode Power Supply

Switch mode power supplies (SMPSs) are used in a range of applications as an efficient and effective source of power. This is a major part of their efficiency. For anybody still working on a desktop, look for the fan output in the central processing units (CPU). That’s where the SMPS is. The internal parts of computer need power supply to work. Switch Mode Power Supply provides power supply to parts like RAM, Motherboard takes power to other parts of computer to work properly. It is an electronic circuit. Power supplies are the very foundation of all the electronic devices and provide consistent, clean power conditions. Most electronic devices, especially with integrated circuits, need a reliable DC voltage solution that can supply power to the circuit without any hiccups.

  • SMPS generates very little heat due to its inherent switching action; which means that the series regulator element is either on or off and therefore little energy is dissipated as heat. The electromagnetic filters used in SMPS protect it from electromagnetic interference. SMPS is designed in a manner in which the input voltage does not affect the transformer’s performance as it has a wide output range.

  • Switching Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) uses advanced semiconductors and this ensures a very compact footprint of the entire module. With its ability to be mounted on standard DIN Rails, SMPS are an ideal choice for small control cabinets.

  • The surge in the output can be easily filtered out using small filter components; reducing the cost and size of the filter circuits. Highly engineered and optimised transformer designs makes the SMPS a cost effective solution.

Types of SMPS:

Buck Converter SMPS

It is a DC-to-DC power converter which steps down voltage from its input. If you need an output voltage that's smaller than the input voltage, then the Buck Converter is your choice. The switching transistor between the input and output of the Buck Converter continually switches on and off at high frequency. To maintain a continuous output, the circuit uses the energy stored in the inductor L, during the on periods of the switching transistor, to continue supplying the load during the off periods. The circuit operation depends on what is sometimes also called a Flywheel Circuit. This is because the circuit acts rather like a mechanical flywheel that, given regularly spaced pulses of energy keeps spinning smoothly (outputting energy) at a steady rate.

AC-DC Converter SMPS

This type of SMPS has an AC i/p and it is converted into DC by using rectifier & filter. This unregulated DC voltage is fed to the power factor correction circuits as it is affected. This is because around the voltage peaks, the rectifier draws short current pulses having significantly high-frequency energy that affects the power factor to reduce.

Boost Converter SMPS

A boost converter is one of the simplest types of switch mode converter. As the name suggests, it takes an input voltage and boosts or increases it. The combination of Inductor, Diode and Capacitor is called as Flywheel Circuit. his simple Boost Converter consists of a Switching Transistor (BJT or MOSFETS can be used), an energy storing element i.e. inductor another switch (Diode or another Transistor), capacitor and a high frequency square wave oscillator with controllable duty cycle.

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